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                              碳汇基础知识
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                         林业碳汇 > 碳汇最新动态 > 正文

                          李怒云:中国林业应对气候变化政策与行动
                          2016/11/7 18:25:00

                               森林是陆地生态系统的主体,也是利用太阳能的最大载体。森林具有巨大的汇集二氧化碳的功能,这个功能称为“碳汇”。同时,毁林以及林地退化、森林火灾和病虫害等,又将其储存的二氧化碳释放到大气中,成为温室气体的排放源。

                               在当下,加快森林植被恢复增加碳汇,保护森林和防止森林退化减少碳排放,已经成为应对气候变化的全球共识和行动,也成为中国两次承诺自主减排的目标之一,即在2020年比2005年增加森林4000万公顷、增加森林蓄积13亿立方米的基础上,承诺2030年比2005年增加森林蓄积45亿立方米。这些都表明林业在中国应对气候变化中具有的重要战略地位。


                               因此,采取措施加强森林生态系统的碳储存和碳汇功能,减少来自于森林的碳排放,充分发挥林业在减缓和适应气候变化中的重要作用,是林业应对气候变化的首要目标。多年来,国家林业局从机构建设、政策措施、技术标准、碳汇交易和参与国际气候谈判等方面,开展了林业应对气候变化管理工作,初步建立了从宏观到微观的管理体系,有力地推动了中国林业应对气候变化工作。

                          为全球应对气候变化作出贡献

                               快速增加森林面积。第八次森林资源清查结果表明,我国森林面积为2.08亿公顷,森林覆被率21.63%,全国森林总蓄积量151.37亿立方米,全国森林植被总生物量170.02亿吨,总碳储量84.27亿吨。中国成为全球森林面积增加最快、人工林最多的国家。联合国粮农组织公布的2015年全球森林资源评估结果显示,20102015年中国是世界上净增森林面积最多的国家,年均增加154.2万公顷。加拿大皇家科学院院士、南京大学特聘教授陈镜明主持的研究成果表明,中国20012010年林分生物量碳汇已超过美国,而森林总碳汇(包括植被和土壤)也已接近美国。可见,诸多评估结果集中反映了中国在造林绿化、加快林业改革发展、推动森林资源保护和发展中取得的成就,充分肯定了中国在扭转全球森林资源持续减少中所作的重大贡献,凸显了中国在国际和区域林业发展中的重要地位和对减缓全球气候变暖作出的巨大贡献。

                               促进碳汇林业发展。2009年,《中共中央国务院关于2009年促进农业稳定发展农民持续增收的若干意见》中要求“建设现代林业,发展山区林特产品、生态旅游业和碳汇林业”(碳汇林业指以吸收固定二氧化碳,充分发挥森林的碳汇功能,降低大气中二氧化碳浓度,减缓气候变化为主要目的的林业活动)。

                               结合国际林业应对气候变化的相关规定,笔者认为碳汇林业至少应该包括以下5个方面内容:(1)符合国家经济社会可持续发展要求和应对气候变化的国家战略;(2)除了积累碳汇外,要提高森林生态系统的稳定性、适应性和整体服务功能,推进生物多样性和生态保护,促进社区发展等森林多种效益;(3)建立符合国际规则与中国实际的技术支撑体系;(4)促进公众应对气候变化和保护气候意识提高;(5)借助市场机制和法律手段,推动以碳汇为主的生态服务市场的发育。

                               碳汇林业受到了国家林业局高度重视。从2003年起,相继成立了国家林业局碳汇办、气候办、能源办、亚太网络中心和全国性公募的碳汇基金会,与此同时,在国家林业局的5个直属规划设计院设立了5个林业碳汇计量监测中心。一些省(区、市)设立了林业碳汇管理办公室或林业碳汇计量监测中心。这些机构成立以后,在国家应对气候变化及节能减排领导小组办公室的指导下,积极贯彻落实国家应对气候变化的方针政策和战略部署,履行国务院赋予国家林业局“拟订林业应对气候变化的政策、措施并组织实施”的职能,使林业应对气候变化工作逐步走上了规范化、科学化、国际化的轨道。

                        制定应对气候变化的管理政策和措施

                               制定行动计划和技术标准。2009年,国家林业局制定了《应对气候变化林业行动计划》,确立了当前及今后一个时期我国林业应对气候变化工作的指导思想、基本原则、阶段目标、重点领域和主要行动。随后,发布了《2013林业应对气候变化政策与行动白皮书》《2014林业应对气候变化政策与行动白皮书》和《2015林业应对气候变化政策与行动白皮书》等。2006年起,下发了若干指导性文件和《林业应对气候变化“十二五”行动要点》,对中国林业应对气候变化管理,起到了把握方向、规范管理、技术指导、传播知识等作用。同时,国家林业局积极参与气候变化谈判,特别是2015年巴黎气候大会林业议题谈判,对2020年后发挥林业减缓和适应气候变化的作用、林业减缓和适应气候变化行动的透明度、发展中国家林业减缓和适应气候变化的行动支持等协议内容提出了意见。

                               10多年来,国家林业局在林业碳汇技术标准体系建设上,开展了超前的研究和探索。目前研制的方法学和标准主要涵盖3个方面。一是国家层面的计量监测体系,如《全国林业碳汇计量监测体系》和《全国林业碳汇计量监测指南》;二是项目层面的碳汇营造林项目方法学,如目前获得国家发改委批准备案的4个林业碳汇项目方法学,包括《碳汇造林项目方法学》《竹林碳汇项目方法学》《森林经营碳汇项目方法学》和《竹林经营碳汇项目方法学》;三是核证层面的审定核查指南:《林业碳汇项目审定和核证指南》(行标),为林业碳汇项目减排量进入国内交易市场打开了通道。在此基础上,国家林业局还编制了《碳汇造林技术规程》(行标)、《碳汇造林检查验收办法》等,为科学、规范地开展碳汇造林和林业碳管理奠定了基础。

                               积极推动林业碳汇减排量进入国内外碳市场。目前,中国有5个林业项目注册为《京都议定书》规则的“清洁发展机制”碳汇项目,有的项目成功进行了交易。在国内7省(市)试点碳市场中,“广东长隆碳汇造林项目”减排量被当地控排企业粤电集团以20/吨的价格购买,成为首个进入国内碳市场的林业碳汇交易项目。林业碳汇减排量进入交易,不仅抵消了企业的碳排放,还为生物多样性保护、生态环境改善、增加当地农民收入等作出了贡献。所以,林业碳汇产品是碳市场中具有多重效益的好产品,其潜在的公益和经济价值将为“绿水青山变金山银山”作出积极贡献。

                               建立公益碳基金会,促进低碳发展。为促中国企业和公众积极参与造林增汇和自愿减排的林业应对气候变化活动,20107月,经国务院批准、民政部注册,建立了全国首家以应对气候变化、积累碳汇为主要目标的全国性公募基金会——中国绿色碳汇基金会。该基金会由中国石油天然气集团公司和嘉汉林业(中国)投资有限公司捐资发起,国家林业局为业务主管单位。截至20166月,碳汇基金会已获社会各界捐资近6亿元,在全国20多个省(区)营造和管理碳汇林8万多公顷,组织实施了40多个大中型会议的“碳中和林”项目,创办了“绿化祖国·低碳行动”植树节,引导公众“足不出户、低碳植树”履行义务植树。此外,基金会还与华东林交所合作,开展了林业碳汇自愿交易试点,建立了农户森林经营碳汇交易体系。

                          应对气候变化展望

                               贯彻落实《应对气候变化国家方案》《国家应对气候变化规划(20142020年)》《国家适应气候变化战略》《应对气候变化林业行动计划》以及《林业应对气候变化“十三五”行动要点》和《林业适应气候变化行动方案(20162020年)》,结合林业中长期发展规划,依托林业重点生态工程,扩大森林面积,提高森林质量,强化森林保护,采取更加有效的措施,加强森林经营和保护,增强森林生态系统整体服务功能,特别是吸碳固碳功能。加快森林恢复和保护, 继续实施好林业重点生态工程,深入开展全民义务植树活动。

                               为落实“十三五”林业规划的建设目标,加快森林植被恢复和保护力度;严格控制征占用林地,保护林地植被和土壤等;加强对森林火灾、病虫害的防控,减少来自森林的碳排放;促进使用木材替代能源密集型材料的补贴政策,提倡“以木代塑、以木代钢”,发展林业生物质能源,延伸森林储碳和碳减排功能。推进林业应对气候变化工作法制化建设,加强中国林业应对气候变化管理战略研究。积极落实“国家自主贡献”目标的林业任务,利用林业碳汇为我国争取更大的碳排放空间,最大限度地发挥林业在应对气候变化中的功能和作用,为国家经济发展作出更大的贡献。

                        (作者系国家林业局气候办副主任、 中国绿色碳汇基金会副理事长兼秘书长)



                         


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